As an Instructional Designer, motivating learners is an important consideration because in reality learners are not always motivated to learn. They are busy, have other things to do, don’t see the course/session as being important or have had a bad learning experience in the past. I’ve written a couple of posts about motivation – self-determination theory and the motivational pull of video games – which are about satisfying autonomy, competence and relatedness needs of learners. I’ve come across Dr John Keller’s motivational design model known as ARCS and thought it was worth sharing.
The ARCS model comprises four major factors that influence the motivation to learn – Attention, Relevance, Confidence and Satisfaction. It’s described as a problem-solving model and helps designers identify and solve specific motivational problems related to the appeal of instruction. The model was developed after a comprehensive review and synthesis of motivation concepts and research studies. Its also been validated in studies across different education levels.
The four categories of motivation variables consist of sub-categories along with process questions to consider when designing:
Attention = Capturing the interest of learners, stimulating their curiosity to learn.
- Perceptual Arousal: What can I do to capture their interest?
- Inquiry Arousal: How can I stimulate an attitude of inquiry?
- Variability: How can I maintain their attention?
Relevance = Meeting the personal needs/goals of the learner to affect a positive attitude.
- Goal Orientation: How can I best meet my learner’s needs? (Do I know their needs?)
- Motive Matching: How and when can I provide my learners with appropriate choices, responsibilities and influences?
- Familiarity: How can I tie the instruction to the learners’ experience?
Confidence = Helping the learners believe/feel that they will succeed and control their success.
- Learning Requirements: How can I assist in building a positive expectation for success?
- Success Opportunities: How will the learning experience support or enhance the learners’ beliefs in their competence?
- Personal Control: How will learners clearly know their success is based upon their efforts and abilities?
Satisfaction = Reinforcing accomplishment with rewards (internal and external).
- Natural Consequences: How can I provide meaningful opportunities for learners to use their newly acquired knowledge/skill?
- Positive Consequences: What will provide reinforcement to the learners’ successes?
- Equity: How can I assist the learners in anchoring a positive feeling about their accomplishments?
The following link is to a YouTube video where Dr Keller discusses the ARCS Model, some background in its development and the addition of volition to the model.
Apart from the motivational aspects of the model, what I really like about ARCS is that it puts the learner at the centre of the design process.
After all, that’s how it should be.
Keller, J. M. (1987) Strategies for stimulating the motivation to learn. Performance and Instruction. 26 (8), 1-7.